Education and the Parents’ Religion During the 19th Century: A Case Study of the Breens
T. Michelle Tucker, MA
This article applies the religious history lens and the first amendment, freedom of religion, in a look at the history of one immigrant couple. Patrick and Margaret Breen sought the optimal environment in which to raise their growing family. They immigrated from Ireland before the terrible famine. A
The Breens repeatedly moved to leave areas due to lack of a permanent priest at the Catholic church or an area that was predominately Protestant without Catholic church where there would be services, such as children’s catechisms. According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, the definition of a catechism is oral instruction, or a summary of religious doctrine often in the form of questions and answers.3 Catechism was a method by which Catholic children learned the beliefs of their faith. Being devout Roman Catholics, the Breens would uproot their family until they found the ideal environment. Moreover, Patrick Breen knew that California, with its Spanish Catholic heritage, was friendly to Catholicism.
If you know the history of the Donner Party, you know that the Breens joined their wagon train in 1846 and endured immeasurable hardships. In a cold cabin with ten other people for almost half the year, Patrick Breen kept his faith. He wrote, “1847 Feb. have nothing but hides all are entirely out of meat but a little we have our hides are nearly all eat up but with Gods help spring will soon smile upon us.”4 When they arrived, they were penniless at Mission San Juan Bautista. The priest let them stay until they could get back on their feet. Margaret Breen expressed her thanks to God for saving them that she went to the Catholic church there every day to pray.
Eventually, with the gold their son John struck at Mormon Island, they lived in the
In conclusion, the Breen’s Christian values prompted them to raise their children to be decent people. Their faith sustained them through the terrible entrapment and starvation in the Sierras over that winter. After the community of San Juan helped them, they turned around and gave in donations and service to make their community better. “A more honest and incorruptible man than John Breen never lived,” said a neighbor and author Isaac L. Mylar, “in San Benito county….owes much to John Breen, for due to his careful manipulation of its finances, coupled with a desire to advance its progress, it owes much of its present prosperity.”6 It was so much so that people said of John Breen, the oldest son who struck gold, that he had a “heart of gold.”
1. Letter from
Abigail Adams to John Adams, 8 May 1780.
Edward Gordon, Marriage Certificate, County of York, 15 February 1831.
noun,” Merriam-Webster, accessed September
30, 2018, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/catechism.
4. Patrick Breen, Sr. Diary of Patrick Breen One of the Donner Party, Frederick J. Teggart, Ed., Silverthorne, CO; Vistabooks, 1996, 14.
A. King, Winter of Entrapment,
Toronto: P.D. Meany Publishers, 1993.
L. Mylar, Early Days at the Mission San
Juan Bautista, Watsonville, Ca.: Evening Pajaronian, 1929, 125.
Citation: T. Michelle Tucker. “Education and the Parents’ Religion During the 19th Century: A Case Study of the Breens.” Explore Historic Sites History and Her-story. The Breens: A Frontier Family. Posted on October 1, 2018, https://www.tmichelletucker.com/the-breens-a-frontier-family.